Hello guys, welcome back to my blog. In this article, I will discuss what is sensor, different types of sensors used in the automobile industry, general block diagram, etc. Each and everything I will try to explain in a simple way.
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Sensors In Automobile Industry
Earlier days the vehicle was running totally on the mechanism, but nowadays it is totally different, the vehicle is totally dependent on sensors. Senors play a very important role in vehicles.
What is the sensor?
The sensor is a component that measures physical quantity like sound, lights, heat, pressure, wet or dry, objects, etc to give it to some processing circuit to generate a signal for controlling the various equipments.
From steering to braking in-vehicle sensors are used. Sensors in vehicles make the vehicle smart and which will make the life of drivers easy. For example, an automatic car that is based on machine learning uses a number of sensors to move the vehicle without touching any object.
There are number of sensors used in electric vehicle’s, such as:
General Block Diagram
01. Engine speed sensor – An engine speed sensor is required to provide an input for the electronic controller for several functions.
02. Wheel speed sensor – The wheel speed sensor is used in ABS, Odometer, etc. The sensor gives a square wave output whose frequency is proportional to the wheel speed.
03. Vehicle speed sensor – It is used in ABS, cruise control system, speedometer, etc. The engine control module uses this information to modify engine functions such as ignition timing, air/fuel ratio, transmission shift points, etc. This sensor is located in the transmission system.
04. Throttle position sensor – The throttle plate is linked mechanically to the accelerator pedal. The throttle plate limits the airflow into the intake manifold.
05. Temperature sensor – It consists of a thermistor used to measure the temperature of the coolant, inlet air, etc. The thermistor is made of semiconductor elements whose resistance changes or varies based on temperature.
06. Mass airflow rate sensor – For the exact operation of an electronically controlled engine requires a measurement of the mass flow rate of air into the engine. This senses the airflow rate into the intake manifold of the engine.
07. Exhaust gas oxygen concentration sensor – To measure the air/fuel ratio, the EGO sensor is used.
08. Crankshaft angular position sensor or an RPM sensor – To determine the valve timing, spark timing, etc the position of the piston w.r.t TDC and BDC is necessary. The crankshaft position is measured using magnetic phenomena.
09. Manifold absolute pressure sensor – The manifold absolute pressure sensor measures the absolute pressure inside the intake manifold of the engine.
10. Knock sensor – This sensor is employed in closed-loop ignition timing to prevent undesirable knock. Knock can be described generally as a rapid rise in the cylinder pressure during combustion.
These sensors are used in the automotive industry.
I hope this article may help you all a lot. Thank you for reading.